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The Czech flag consists of a lower red field and an upper white field with a blue wedge reaching from the flagpole side of the flag to its center. The central feature on the small coat of arms is a split-tailed lion wearing a crown.
The large coat of arms makes pictorial references to Bohemia, Moravia, and Silesia.
The chief rivers are the Labe (Elbe) and its main tributaries, the Vltava (Moldau) and the Ohře (Eger); the Elbe flows into the North Sea.
Čechy originally may have referred to a dry place, or it may have been a place-name that eventually gave rise to the name of its inhabitants. Češi or Čechové ) is explained as an abbreviated pet name for a groom (a person responsible for the care of horses, čeledín ), or it might have been someone's name.
When Comenius went into permanent exile in 1628, a number of European countries invited him for extended visits. During the religious conflicts of the Thirty Years War (1618–1648), Comenius proposed the establishment of an ecumenical council of churches and an international academy of scientists.
Among his writings were a seven-volume manuscript with recommendations for the improvement of human affairs and a textbook with illustrations ( Orbis pictus ) that is said to be the first such textbook.
The Hussite movement, originally religious and nationalist, culminated in 1419 when the Hussite forces defeated several armies sent to Bohemia by the pope to put an end to reformational ideology.
A compromise between the Hussites and the Catholic Church was not reached until 1436.
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The ethnic composition is 94 percent Czech (Moravians and Bohemian Czechs), 3 percent Slovak, 0.6 percent Polish, 0.5 percent German, 0.3 percent Romany (Gypsy) officially but perhaps as much as 2.5 percent, and about 0.4 percent Ukrainian.